Esta es una lista de países y nacionalidades para beginners, tu primera toma de contacto, por lo que solo veremos los países más conocidos. En la lección intermediate del mismo tema encontrarás una lista más exhaustiva y explicaciones ampliadas.
The south of Europe is known for its mild weather, delicious food and laid-back lifestyle. The Mediterranean Sea connects all these nations and it is commonly called the cradle of European civilization.
Many countries call Central Europe their home. From the smaller nations of Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg, usually referred to as The Benelux, to the German speaking countries of Switzerland, Germany and Austria, these countries are famous for their industrious people and high living standards.
|The Netherlands||Los Países Bajos|
Eastern Europe is also home for many different countries.
They are usually group together as they used to be Soviet Republics but their history dates back many centuries and their cultures are very diverse and rich. Nowadays, they are trendy countries for tourists worldwide.
|Czech Republic||República Checa|
The Scandinavian countries occupy the northern part of Europe. They are known for their cold weather and short nights but also for their high quality of life and strong democracies.
They are usually ranked as the best countries to live and Denmark has won several years the award as the happiest country in the world.
Although Iceland is technically not part of Scandinavia it is usually group together because of their cultural ties. It is a volcanic island which homes some of the most amazing landscapes in the our planet.
The United Kingdom is a country made up of the union of four different countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The UK shares The British Isles with the Republic of Ireland, which a different country. They all have English as their national language but people other languages as well like Gaelic.
|The United Kingdom||El Reino Unido|
|Northern Ireland||Irlanda del Norte|
In Spanish, America is considered just one continent but not in English, as they split it up into North America and South America. If you want to talk about both of them as the same time, in English you can say The Americas. Also, in English, America only refers to the USA, not the continent.
Many people forget about it but, geographically speaking, Mexico is in North America, along the USA and Canada.
Mexico is the only country in North America with Spanish as their national language. Canada has two, English and French. Although it might come as a surprise, the USA has no official language.
Since most countries in South America have Spanish as their national language and are culturally Hispanic, their names in English are very similar to their names in Spanish.
There are several countries in The Caribbean Sea. They all are island nations, such as Cuba, Jamaica or Puerto Rico.
Puerto Rico is an independent country but it has a special association with the USA and it is sometimes referred to as the 51st state.
|Puerto Rico||Puerto Rico|
Asia is by far the largest continent in our planet, stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the Pacific Ocean, therefore home to some of the largest countries as well, like China or India.
On the eastern part of Asia we can find many different countries. This part of the world is known for being the cradle of human civilization and also for having the largest reserves of oil in our planet.
|Saudi Arabia||Arabia Saudí|
|United Arab Emirates||Emiratos Árabes Unidos|
South East Asia is the tropical region of Asia, where several countries share one of the hottest and most humid climates in the world.
These countries are very popular nowadays among backpackers. They offer amazing landscapes, delicious food and friendly people at very affordable prices.
The largest and most populous countries in the world are in Asia. China is number one, with over 1.4 billion people calling China home. India is number two but it is expected to become the most populated country by the end of the century.
All these countries have amazing cultures dating back thousands of years. They are also home for some of the most important religions and gastronomy.
|North Korea||Corea del Norte|
|South Korea||Corea del Sur|
North Africa borders the Mediterranean to the north and the Sahara desert to the south, which works as a natural barrier, separating these countries from the rest of the continent.
Africa is still unknown for most of us and the continent which we usually fail harder in geography quizzes.
However, Africa is thriving really fast and life conditions are improving greatly.
Although the term Oceania does exist in English, most people never use it and they simply say Australia when they mean the whole continent of Oceania because it is by far the largest country.
New Zealand and Papua New Guinea are also pretty large countries unlike the rest of nations in Oceania, which are tiny island nations like Polynesia or Fiji. However their size, these micronations are seen as heaven on earth because they have wonderful weather, some of the most beautiful landscapes in the world and very friendly people.
|New Zealand||Nueza Zelanda|
|Papua New Guinea||Papúa Nueva Guinea|
Las nacionalidades son adjetivos y eso implica dos cosas:
Son invariables, no tienen género ni número → en inglés solo hay una única forma. French significa francés, francesa, franceses y francesas.
Como adjetivos que son, nunca pueden ir solos en la frase, siempre tienen que ir seguidos de un sustantivo o los pronombres one & ones.
|a French person||un francés / una francesa|
|a French man||un francés|
|a French woman||una francesa|
|French people||los franceses|
En inglés, las nacionalidades, al igual que los países, también van en mayúscula (upper case).
cómo se forman las nacionalidades
En Europa, la mayoría de nacionalidades se hacen añadiendo —ish o —ch al país.
Sin embargo, algunos las hacen añadiendo —an, que es lo típico de las nacionalidades de América.
Además, existen las nacionalidades terminadas en —ese o en —er y algunas otras que son únicas.
|The United Kingdom||British|
|Puerto Rico||Puerto Rican|
*American en inglés solo se refiere a los estadounidenses.
|Saudi Arabia||Saudi Arabian|
|South Korea||South Korean|
|North Korea||North Korean|
|South Africa||South African|
|New Zeeland||New Zeelander|
|Papua New Guinea||Papuan|